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《 aimed at yong shen yao ming sketch is the scholar wu chengxue to study the late ming xiao Pin's notes with the pen. He thought that the essay was the image of the late ming literati's state of mind, it was in the traditional ancient prose "carry the way" of the rut, in the form of a leisurely style and rambling words to taste life. This article is taken from the book, originally titled "Back to the Source ", published by the surging news through the cultural authority.


Sketches, this is a more familiar and not very familiar style. We all know which works are called \"sketches \", but if we want to define the exact definition of\" sketches \", it is a difficult question to answer.


In detail,\" sketch \"is a rather vague concept of style, it is not like novels, opera, poetry, parallel prose and other styles, in the art form has some distinctive and specific signs and characteristics. In fact, more accurately,\" sketch \"is a kind of\" literary category \", or a broad sense of style, it can include many specific styles. In fact, in the late ming people's essay collection, many styles such as preface, postscript, notes, even parallel prose, ci fu, novel and so on almost all style can become \"sketch \". However, most of the works called \"essays\" still have their general characteristics, but this characteristic is not reflected in the special provisions of the external form of the genre, but mainly in its aesthetic characteristics, which in a word:\" small \". This is short space, simple language, express the spirit alone, and meaningful charm.


Our so-called "sketch" today is a literary concept, but it is derived from the Buddhist scriptures. Liu Xiao annotates "Shi Shuo Xin Yu · Literature" to explain the "differentiation of the empty sutras" to say:" There is a detailed Yan, there is a strategy Yan. Details for the big products, a sketch for the sketch. There are twenty-seven volumes and ten volumes of this book, one called Prajna Grande Pin and the other called Prajna Sketch. Therefore, the original meaning of "sketch" and "big product ", the sketch is the Buddhist scripture. The short Buddhist sutras are popular because they are short and easy to read, understand and spread. For example, Zhang Rong of the six dynasties wrote:" I have a good life, I should smile Ling Yun. Three thousand for the coffin, no new quilt. The left hand holds the < filial piety sutra >< Laozi >, the right hand holds the small product < Fahwa Sutra >. The term "sketch ", which was popular, did not have literary significance at the time. This situation lasted for a long time, until the late Ming Dynasty, people really applied the word "sketch" to literature, as the name of a certain type of work. This can be strongly corroborated by the name of the publication at that time. In the late Ming Dynasty, there were many collections of prose named after "sketch ", such as Chen Jiru's" late Xiangtang sketch ", Chen Renxi's "dreamless garden collection sketch ", Wang Siren's" essay rice sketch ", Pan Zhihuan's "Luan Xiao sketch ", Zhu Guozhen's" Chung Building sketch ", etc.


Why the sketch will flourish in the late Ming Dynasty, this has its literary internal reasons. On the one hand, the Ming people inherited the excellent tradition of ancient Chinese prose, on the other hand, creatively endowed the sketch with independent artistic character, incisively and vividly expressed the artistic characteristics of the sketch, making it become a kind of style with rich personality color and quite free expression.


Willow Yiyi, tree-lined, is not growing overnight, warm climate and fertile soil and water need seeds and time to cultivate. Although the term \"sketch\" has the connotation of literary style only in the late Ming Dynasty, from the perspective of the development of literature, the ancient Chinese essays have a long history, and the origin of the minor essays has even been traced back to the prose, such as Mr. Qian Mu in the essays in Chinese literature. For example, Confucius said,\" Then you know that the pine and cypress wither.\" He considers this chapter to be literary only in one sentence, and we may regard it as a literary sketch. \"The son said to him,\" The dead are like men! Day and night. \"He thought the chapter was only two sentences, but it was also a literary essay. (The Collection of Chinese Literary Speeches) In the pre-Qin period, the meaningful quotations from the aphorisms can also be regarded as a rarity in the generalized form of small articles. By the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties, there had been a large number of articles that could really be called small articles, in addition to \"the new language of the world \", such as Tao Qian's Peach Blossom Source, Qiu Chi's Book with Chen Bo, Wu Jun's\" Zhu Yuan Si Shu \"and\" Water Classic Note \"and\" Luoyang Lan Ji \". And in the prose of Tang and Song Dynasty, the masterpiece of sketch is countless.


The first particularly noteworthy book is, of course, The New Language of the World. This book is very influential in the late Ming Dynasty, and is regarded as the standard by the literati, becoming the classic of the famous scholar and the scholar. As xing dong said in the \"engraving new language quotes \":\" cover since long, ten thousand, and\" the world said new language \"between the south-east of the world, if the account of zhonglang, and huainan pillow, mouth cannot occupy the micro-talk, not given by the name.\" The reason why the late Ming people loved \"the world said new language\" is mainly because of the love of the Wei and Jin Qing talk atmosphere and the style of release, but also with the love of its literary style. \"The world says new language\" the essence wants the simple far, the high sentiment far rhyme, makes the person aftertaste unceasingly. In the late Ming Dynasty, the essays also liked to use the language of \"The New Language of the World \", such as Sun Qizheng's\" A New Comment on the Society \", which evaluated 43 poets in the Poetry Society, such as:


Mo ting han people, such as huainan hill for the \"zhaoyin \", sad far-minded, not out of the purpose of coquettish. The charm of the absolute, known as the high, it is appropriate for the flow of the wind.


Zhang Zhongli for the talent high can hair, and support meaning you Xuan. Just as the autumn moon of the curling, it is advisable to go out of the haze, is strong to make the appropriate vulgar, so the youth is many children to build worry about life.


Kangshan people to sprinkle you, its free-minded ape wild crane ears; and for the dead friends thousands of miles of bone, there is a heart of iron stone. Not only the mountain people, but also the state. (Clear Sea)


These languages are in the wind of the six dynasties rhyme, whether it is intentional simulation or unconscious influence, in short, the form and spirit like the \"world to say the new language \", some even in the\" world to say the new language \", also did not give way.


Compared with the six dynasties, the Ming Dynasty has more close cultural connection with the Song Dynasty, and the Song Dynasty prose essays have more direct and extensive influence on the late Ming essays. Song dynasty prose prosperity performance is many, one of which is the song people's notes, pen talk, miscellaneous notes, notes, essays. But Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian these several literary master's essay works to the late Ming literati's sketch creation influence is obvious. Ouyang Xiu those slips, postscript, essays, notes into the pen into fun, beautiful and meaningful, with a swaying \"61 wind god.\" Dongpo's short prose system such as flowing water, pure and true; Xiaosan Jianyuan, high wind dust, do not seek good and natural high. Although they are not named after the sketch, they are the best in the sketch. Xu Wei admires Dongpo most, he said in \"comment Zhu Zi on Dongpo Wen \":\" there are very layout and no trace of the layout, Dongpo only one person from ancient times.\" \"Wenzhi Dongpo really doesn't have to write a composition, but it's just a casual record,\" said Ming Man Wang Shengshu in his selection of\" Su Changgong Xiao Pin. Dongpo sketch both free and easy and the six dynasties meaningful, and become a family. Dongpo has a great influence on writers of all kinds in late Ming Dynasty. Yu Chunxi once vividly said:\" when the time is, Wenyuan Dongpo Royal, Dongpo, Tianxi Kuishu also. Fall from heaven and earth. One is the beauty of the Yuan Dynasty, the other is the fighting back; the other is the beauty of the scholar; the other is the charm of his body, the charm of his body, and the grinding of his life. This is a graphic illustration of the fact that many famous writers in the late Ming Dynasty were well-known in some aspects of Dongpo's art.


The outstanding works of the Song people provide the artistic reference for the creation of the late Ming Dynasty sketch. Late Ming essay writers absorb a lot of essence in it. Yuan Hongdao wrote in \"Answer Mei Kesheng Kaifu \":\" there is nothing in the residence, day and Yongshu, Po Gong. Yuan zhongdao's works are divided into \"high-text book\" and \"novel sketch \", and clearly show his aesthetic interest:\" now the beloved of dongpo, mostly in the small-text novel, its high-text book, people do not love deeply.\" Su Dongpo's influence on Ming people is first of all in his unrestrained, bold and optimistic cultural personality, while in literature, Dongpo is also the tutor of the late Ming sketch writers. Dongpo's essays are scattered freely, high wind and dust, since the late Ming writers admire, Dongpo's humor and wit is also the style of the late Ming literati like. Dongpo is often humorous, funny to dispel, to resolve sorrow and distress. The ancients called Dongpo \"Samadhi with writing \"(\" Gengxi Poems \"), and said\" Dongpo duya banter \"(\" Only Wake Magazine \"), and many of Dongpo's works are marked as game work. The late Ming sketch was greatly influenced by Su Dongpo's essays, and tinged with humor and game color. The evening banter, elegant banter objects are poetry friends, wine lovers tea companion, both can laugh at people, but also self-deprecation, add fun in social life.


Yujia deep mountains, every spring and summer turn, moss surplus steps, falling flowers full path, door no peeling pecking, loose shadow stagger, bird sound up and down. At the beginning of the siesta, gather spring, pick up pine branches, boil bitter tea to sip; read at will \"zhou yi \",\" guo feng \",\" zuo's biography \",\" li sao \", tai shi gongshu, tao du poetry, han su wen several. From rongbu mountain path, caressing pine bamboo, and fangjian calves in the long forest between the grass. Sit in the fountain and wash your teeth. Go to the bamboo window, then the young children, bamboo shoots fern, for the wheat rice, happy a full. Drawn between the window, with the size of dozens of words, the exhibition hide the Dharma post, ink, scroll throughout it. Xing to sing a small poem, or grass \"jade dew\" one or two, and then a cup of bitter tea, out of the stream. Meets the garden Weng Xi friend, asks the mulberry horse, says the japonica rice, measures the fine school rain, explores the number of days, the phase and the drama talks about a pay. Return and rely on the stick under the door of wood, the setting sun in the mountains, purple green ten thousand shapes, changes in the moment, as if eye-catching, ox-back flute sound, two to return, and the moon before the stream.


The modern writer Yu Dafu, after quoting the above passage in his essay \"The Fresh Essays \", commented:\" After reading this passage, I feel the smell is similar to that of Yuan Zhonglang, Zhang Taoan and so on. The description of the idyllic landscape, and the natural life of leisure and pure emotion, should be the most beautiful and the most beautiful in this style. As a matter of fact, most of the life tastes and artistic skills we saw in the late Ming Dynasty essays have been fully represented in the Song Dynasty essays. So we can say that in the art of feeling and performance of nature and life, Song people's sketch is also the precursor of the late Ming sketch.


As an independent style, postscript began in Tang and Song dynasties. Ming people Wu Na \"article discrimination\" said:\" Han and Jin collection, the postscript does not contain; to Tang Han, Liu, began to read a book and read a topic after the name. Song ou, after the beginning of the postscript, but its speech meaning is not very far away, so \"Wen Jian \", the editor-in-chief of the title and postscript. From the point of view of sketch art, the influence of Song people's postscript on the essays of the late Ming Dynasty is also very great. Late Ming people like Su, Huang, mainly like its postscript a kind of sketch. Zhong Xing \"picking Huangshan Valley inscriptions\" in the text, can be seen in the postscript ancient spiritual skills,\" its language can be one, its one can be one. The valley is the most recitable. And from Huang Tingjian's postscript, can \"know the postscript is not the article home path also. The whole skill in his chest, the whole spirit, through one person, one thing, one thing. Write very deep, very thick, very wide, and in the subject of one person, a matter, a thing, its meaning is not incompatible, so it is wonderful. Chen Jiru also said:\" Su Huang's wonderful, the best in the postscript, followed by bamboo slips, secondary words.\" (\" Su Huang inscription and postscript small preface \") its love in the Song people inscription and postscript, in this visible spot. \"The Secretary of Tianjin\" compiled by Ming people Mao Jin, with the Song people's postscript as an episode, and in the \"Dongpo postscript\" of the attached knowledge called Su Dongpo, Huang Tingjian as \"Yuanyou everyone,\" said:\" where the calligraphy and painting, once the two old postscript, not Lei Fei Tingting, and thousands of shock, seems to be Mo Kebo Zhong. The reason why the postscript is paid attention to is that its form is short and flexible, and it accords with the interest of the late Ming people, which is also a reason why a large number of postscript works appear in the late Ming Dynasty.


I have a view that the Ming Dynasty literature is greatly influenced by the Tang and Song dynasties, but in different styles, the influence is quite different. The poems of the Ming Dynasty were most influenced by Tang poetry, and the prose of the Ming Dynasty seemed to benefit from the most writers of the Song Dynasty.