您现在的位置是:主页 > 澳门威尼斯游戏手机版app > 晚明小品生活情趣与艺术技巧大多表现在宋人小品上

晚明小品生活情趣与艺术技巧大多表现在宋人小品上
2020-01-10 21:19   来源:  www.cangzhoujiaoyu.cn   评论:0 点击:

晚明小品生活情趣与艺术技巧大多表现在宋人小品上《旨永神遥明小品》是学者吴承学研读晚明小品文的札记随笔

  《旨永神遥明小品》是学者吴承学研读晚明小品文的札记随笔集。他认为小品文是晚明文人心态的形象写照,其在传统古文“文以载道”的轨辙之外另立一宗,以悠然自得的笔调和漫话絮语的形式体味人生。本文摘自该书,原题为《追源溯流说文体》,由澎湃新闻经领读文化授权发布。

《 aimed at yong shen yao ming sketch is the scholar wu chengxue to study the late ming xiao Pin's notes with the pen. He thought that the essay was the image of the late ming literati's state of mind, it was in the traditional ancient prose "carry the way" of the rut, in the form of a leisurely style and rambling words to taste life. This article is taken from the book, originally titled "Back to the Source ", published by the surging news through the cultural authority.

  小品,这是人们比较熟悉同时也不甚了了的文体。我们都知道哪些作品叫“小品”,但假如要为“小品”下一个准确的定义,却是一道不易解答的问题。

Sketches, this is a more familiar and not very familiar style. We all know which works are called \"sketches \", but if we want to define the exact definition of\" sketches \", it is a difficult question to answer.

  细究起来,“小品”是一个颇为模糊的文体概念,它不像小说、戏曲、诗词、骈文等那些文体,在艺术形式上有某些鲜明具体的标志与特点。其实更准确地说,“小品”是一种“文类”,或者说是宽泛意义上的文体,它可以包括许多具体的文体。事实上,在晚明人的小品文集中,许多文体如序、跋、记、尺牍乃至骈文、辞赋、小说等几乎所有的文体都可以成为“小品”。不过,综观大多数被称为“小品文”的作品,仍然有其大体上的特点,但这种特点不是表现在对于体裁的外在形式的特别规定,而主要在于其审美特性,这种特点一言以蔽之曰:“小”。这便是篇幅短小,文辞简约,独抒性灵,而韵味隽永。

In detail,\" sketch \"is a rather vague concept of style, it is not like novels, opera, poetry, parallel prose and other styles, in the art form has some distinctive and specific signs and characteristics. In fact, more accurately,\" sketch \"is a kind of\" literary category \", or a broad sense of style, it can include many specific styles. In fact, in the late ming people's essay collection, many styles such as preface, postscript, notes, even parallel prose, ci fu, novel and so on almost all style can become \"sketch \". However, most of the works called \"essays\" still have their general characteristics, but this characteristic is not reflected in the special provisions of the external form of the genre, but mainly in its aesthetic characteristics, which in a word:\" small \". This is short space, simple language, express the spirit alone, and meaningful charm.

  我们今天所谓的“小品”是一个文学概念,但它却是来源于佛经的。刘孝标注《世说新语·文学》引释氏《辨空经》说:“有详者焉,有略者焉。详者为大品,略者为小品。”鸠摩罗什翻译《摩诃般若波罗蜜经》,有二十七卷本与十卷本两种,一称作《大品般若》,一称作《小品般若》。所以“小品”的原意是与“大品”相举而言的,小品是佛经的节文。小品佛经因为简短约略,便于诵读、理解和传播,故颇受人们的喜爱。如六朝的张融《遗令》就写道:“吾平生所善,自当凌云一笑。三千买棺,无制新衾。左手执《孝经》《老子》,右手执小品《法华经》。”临死尚念念不忘“小品”,可见其受欢迎之一斑,但“小品”一词在当时并不具备文学文体的意义。这种情况延续了很长时间,一直到了晚明,人们才真正把“小品”一词运用到文学之中,把它作为某类作品的称呼。这可以从当时的出版物的名称得到有力的旁证。晚明有不少以“小品”命名的散文集子,专集如陈继儒的《晚香堂小品》、陈仁锡的《无梦园集小品》、王思任的《文饭小品》、潘之桓的《鸾啸小品》、朱国桢的《涌幢小品》等;选本如王纳谏的《苏长公小品》、陈天定的《古今小品》……而小品文在晚明也从古文的附庸独立而成为自觉的文体。

Our so-called "sketch" today is a literary concept, but it is derived from the Buddhist scriptures. Liu Xiao annotates "Shi Shuo Xin Yu · Literature" to explain the "differentiation of the empty sutras" to say:" There is a detailed Yan, there is a strategy Yan. Details for the big products, a sketch for the sketch. There are twenty-seven volumes and ten volumes of this book, one called Prajna Grande Pin and the other called Prajna Sketch. Therefore, the original meaning of "sketch" and "big product ", the sketch is the Buddhist scripture. The short Buddhist sutras are popular because they are short and easy to read, understand and spread. For example, Zhang Rong of the six dynasties wrote:" I have a good life, I should smile Ling Yun. Three thousand for the coffin, no new quilt. The left hand holds the < filial piety sutra >< Laozi >, the right hand holds the small product < Fahwa Sutra >. The term "sketch ", which was popular, did not have literary significance at the time. This situation lasted for a long time, until the late Ming Dynasty, people really applied the word "sketch" to literature, as the name of a certain type of work. This can be strongly corroborated by the name of the publication at that time. In the late Ming Dynasty, there were many collections of prose named after "sketch ", such as Chen Jiru's" late Xiangtang sketch ", Chen Renxi's "dreamless garden collection sketch ", Wang Siren's" essay rice sketch ", Pan Zhihuan's "Luan Xiao sketch ", Zhu Guozhen's" Chung Building sketch ", etc.

  为什么小品会在晚明勃然兴盛,这有其文学内部的原因。一方面明人继承了中国古代散文的优秀传统,另一方面,又创造性地赋予小品以独立的艺术品格,淋漓尽致地表现了小品的艺术特性,使小品成为一种富于个性色彩、表达相当自由的文体。

Why the sketch will flourish in the late Ming Dynasty, this has its literary internal reasons. On the one hand, the Ming people inherited the excellent tradition of ancient Chinese prose, on the other hand, creatively endowed the sketch with independent artistic character, incisively and vividly expressed the artistic characteristics of the sketch, making it become a kind of style with rich personality color and quite free expression.

  杨柳依依,绿树成荫,并不是在一朝一夕长成的,温润的气候和肥沃的水土还需要种子和时间的培育。尽管小品一词到了晚明才具有文学文体的内蕴,但从文学内部发展来考察,中国古代小品文可谓源远流长,关于小品文的起源有人甚至追溯到诸子散文,如钱穆先生在《中国文学中的散文小品》中就认为在先秦诸子和一些历史典籍中,已有小品文的雏形了。比如子曰:“岁寒然后知松柏之后凋也。”他认为此一章只一句话,即可认为是文学的,我们可目之为文学中之小品。又如:“子在川上曰:‘逝者如斯夫!不舍昼夜。’”他认为此章仅两句,但亦可谓是文学,是文学中之小品。(《中国文学讲演集》)先秦诸子那种情味隽永的格言式语录,从广义的小品文形式来看,也可算是此中珍品。到了魏晋南北朝时期,已经出现大量可真正称为小品文的文章,除了《世说新语》之外,像陶潜的《桃花源记》、丘迟的《与陈伯之书》、吴均的《与朱元思书》乃至《水经注》与《洛阳伽蓝记》中的篇章,它们不但是成熟的小品文,而且在艺术上也达到佳妙绝伦的境界。而在唐宋的散文中,小品杰作更是数不胜数了。

Willow Yiyi, tree-lined, is not growing overnight, warm climate and fertile soil and water need seeds and time to cultivate. Although the term \"sketch\" has the connotation of literary style only in the late Ming Dynasty, from the perspective of the development of literature, the ancient Chinese essays have a long history, and the origin of the minor essays has even been traced back to the prose, such as Mr. Qian Mu in the essays in Chinese literature. For example, Confucius said,\" Then you know that the pine and cypress wither.\" He considers this chapter to be literary only in one sentence, and we may regard it as a literary sketch. \"The son said to him,\" The dead are like men! Day and night. \"He thought the chapter was only two sentences, but it was also a literary essay. (The Collection of Chinese Literary Speeches) In the pre-Qin period, the meaningful quotations from the aphorisms can also be regarded as a rarity in the generalized form of small articles. By the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties, there had been a large number of articles that could really be called small articles, in addition to \"the new language of the world \", such as Tao Qian's Peach Blossom Source, Qiu Chi's Book with Chen Bo, Wu Jun's\" Zhu Yuan Si Shu \"and\" Water Classic Note \"and\" Luoyang Lan Ji \". And in the prose of Tang and Song Dynasty, the masterpiece of sketch is countless.

  首先特别值得一提的当然是《世说新语》一书。此书在晚明影响很大,被文人们奉为圭臬,成为名士、文人清谈的经典。如邢侗在《刻世说新语抄引》中说:“盖自隆、万以来,而《世说新语》大行东南天地间,若发中郎之帐,而斫淮南之枕,口不占不得中微谈,士不授不得称名下也。”晚明人之所以喜爱《世说新语》,主要是因为喜爱魏晋的清谈风气和放达之风,但同时也与喜爱其文采风流有关系。《世说新语》精要简远,高情远韵,令人回味不已。晚明小品也喜欢采用《世说新语》式的语言,如孙七政的《社中新评》,品评了四十三位诗社中的诗人,如:

The first particularly noteworthy book is, of course, The New Language of the World. This book is very influential in the late Ming Dynasty, and is regarded as the standard by the literati, becoming the classic of the famous scholar and the scholar. As xing dong said in the \"engraving new language quotes \":\" cover since long, ten thousand, and\" the world said new language \"between the south-east of the world, if the account of zhonglang, and huainan pillow, mouth cannot occupy the micro-talk, not given by the name.\" The reason why the late Ming people loved \"the world said new language\" is mainly because of the love of the Wei and Jin Qing talk atmosphere and the style of release, but also with the love of its literary style. \"The world says new language\" the essence wants the simple far, the high sentiment far rhyme, makes the person aftertaste unceasingly. In the late Ming Dynasty, the essays also liked to use the language of \"The New Language of the World \", such as Sun Qizheng's\" A New Comment on the Society \", which evaluated 43 poets in the Poetry Society, such as:

  莫廷韩为人正,如淮南小山作《招隐》,悲怀远意,不出骚家宗旨。而以气韵峻绝,独称高作,宜其为风流宗。

Mo ting han people, such as huainan hill for the \"zhaoyin \", sad far-minded, not out of the purpose of coquettish. The charm of the absolute, known as the high, it is appropriate for the flow of the wind.

  张仲立为人才高灿发,而托意幽玄。正如冰壶秋月,本宜着烟霞外去,乃强使适俗,故少年即多子建忧生之嗟。

Zhang Zhongli for the talent high can hair, and support meaning you Xuan. Just as the autumn moon of the curling, it is advisable to go out of the haze, is strong to make the appropriate vulgar, so the youth is many children to build worry about life.

  康山人幽致洒然,直意其闲猿野鹤群耳;及为君死友万里负骨,竟有铁石心肠。岂惟山人,抑且国士。(《明文海》)

Kangshan people to sprinkle you, its free-minded ape wild crane ears; and for the dead friends thousands of miles of bone, there is a heart of iron stone. Not only the mountain people, but also the state. (Clear Sea)

  这些语言正得六朝之风流余韵,不管是有意模拟还是无意识的影响,总之形神兼似《世说新语》,有些甚至置于《世说新语》之中,也并不多让。

These languages are in the wind of the six dynasties rhyme, whether it is intentional simulation or unconscious influence, in short, the form and spirit like the \"world to say the new language \", some even in the\" world to say the new language \", also did not give way.

  与六朝文相比,明代在文化上的联系与宋代更为密切,宋代散文小品对于晚明小品的影响更为直接也更为广泛。宋代散文繁荣的表现是多方面的,其中之一便是宋人的笔记、笔谈、杂记、笔录、随笔极多。而欧阳修、苏轼、黄庭坚这几位文学大师的随笔作品对晚明文人的小品创作的影响是显而易见的。欧阳修那些尺牍、题跋、随笔、札记涉笔成趣,优美而隽永,具有一种摇曳的“六一风神”。东坡的散文短制如行云流水,纯任本真;萧散简远,高风绝尘,不求妙而自然高妙。它们虽然不以小品命名,而实是小品文中的无上佳作。徐渭最佩服东坡,他在《评朱子论东坡文》中说:“极有布置而了无布置痕迹者,东坡千古一人而已。”明人王圣俞在选辑《苏长公小品》时说,“文至东坡真是不须作文,只是随事记录便是文。”东坡小品兼有魏晋之洒脱和六朝之隽永,而自成一家。东坡对于晚明各种流派的作家都有巨大影响。虞淳熙曾生动地比喻说:“当是时,文苑东坡临御,东坡者,天西奎宿也。自天堕地,分身者四。一为元美身,得其斗背;一为若士身,得其灿眉;一为文长身,得其韵之风流,命之磨蝎;袁郎晚降,得其滑稽之口,而已借光璧府,散炜布宝。”(《徐文长文集序》)这正是形象地说明在晚明许多著名作家身上,都得到东坡某些方面的艺术真传。

Compared with the six dynasties, the Ming Dynasty has more close cultural connection with the Song Dynasty, and the Song Dynasty prose essays have more direct and extensive influence on the late Ming essays. Song dynasty prose prosperity performance is many, one of which is the song people's notes, pen talk, miscellaneous notes, notes, essays. But Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian these several literary master's essay works to the late Ming literati's sketch creation influence is obvious. Ouyang Xiu those slips, postscript, essays, notes into the pen into fun, beautiful and meaningful, with a swaying \"61 wind god.\" Dongpo's short prose system such as flowing water, pure and true; Xiaosan Jianyuan, high wind dust, do not seek good and natural high. Although they are not named after the sketch, they are the best in the sketch. Xu Wei admires Dongpo most, he said in \"comment Zhu Zi on Dongpo Wen \":\" there are very layout and no trace of the layout, Dongpo only one person from ancient times.\" \"Wenzhi Dongpo really doesn't have to write a composition, but it's just a casual record,\" said Ming Man Wang Shengshu in his selection of\" Su Changgong Xiao Pin. Dongpo sketch both free and easy and the six dynasties meaningful, and become a family. Dongpo has a great influence on writers of all kinds in late Ming Dynasty. Yu Chunxi once vividly said:\" when the time is, Wenyuan Dongpo Royal, Dongpo, Tianxi Kuishu also. Fall from heaven and earth. One is the beauty of the Yuan Dynasty, the other is the fighting back; the other is the beauty of the scholar; the other is the charm of his body, the charm of his body, and the grinding of his life. This is a graphic illustration of the fact that many famous writers in the late Ming Dynasty were well-known in some aspects of Dongpo's art.

  宋人优秀的作品,为晚明小品创作提供了艺术上的借鉴。晚明小品文作家在其中吸收大量的精华。袁宏道在《答梅客生开府》中写道:“邸中无事,日与永叔、坡公作对。”袁中道《答蔡观察元履》把苏轼的作品分为“高文大册”和“小说小品”,并明确地表明自己的审美兴趣:“今东坡之可爱者,多在小文小说,其高文大册,人固不深爱也。”苏东坡对于明人影响,首先在其放旷潇洒、豪放乐观的文化人格方面,而在文学方面,东坡也是晚明小品作家的导师。东坡小品的萧散自如,高风绝尘,自是晚明小品作家所倾慕不已的,东坡的幽默与机智也是晚明文人所喜欢的风格。东坡往往是以幽默、滑稽来排遣、化解忧愁和苦闷。古人称东坡“以文笔游戏三昧”(《庚溪诗话》),又说“东坡多雅谑”(《独醒杂志》),而东坡的不少作品都标明是游戏之作。晚明小品受到苏东坡小品很大的影响,染上幽默和游戏色彩。晚明的嘲谑、雅谑对象有诗朋文友、酒侣茶伴,既可嘲人,也可自嘲,增添社交生活中的乐趣。

The outstanding works of the Song people provide the artistic reference for the creation of the late Ming Dynasty sketch. Late Ming essay writers absorb a lot of essence in it. Yuan Hongdao wrote in \"Answer Mei Kesheng Kaifu \":\" there is nothing in the residence, day and Yongshu, Po Gong. Yuan zhongdao's works are divided into \"high-text book\" and \"novel sketch \", and clearly show his aesthetic interest:\" now the beloved of dongpo, mostly in the small-text novel, its high-text book, people do not love deeply.\" Su Dongpo's influence on Ming people is first of all in his unrestrained, bold and optimistic cultural personality, while in literature, Dongpo is also the tutor of the late Ming sketch writers. Dongpo's essays are scattered freely, high wind and dust, since the late Ming writers admire, Dongpo's humor and wit is also the style of the late Ming literati like. Dongpo is often humorous, funny to dispel, to resolve sorrow and distress. The ancients called Dongpo \"Samadhi with writing \"(\" Gengxi Poems \"), and said\" Dongpo duya banter \"(\" Only Wake Magazine \"), and many of Dongpo's works are marked as game work. The late Ming sketch was greatly influenced by Su Dongpo's essays, and tinged with humor and game color. The evening banter, elegant banter objects are poetry friends, wine lovers tea companion, both can laugh at people, but also self-deprecation, add fun in social life.

  余家深山之中,每春夏之交,苍藓盈阶,落花满径,门无剥啄,松影参差,禽声上下。午睡初足,旋汲山泉,拾松枝,煮苦茗啜之;随意读《周易》《国风》《左氏传》《离骚》、太史公书及陶杜诗、韩苏文数篇。从容步山径,抚松竹,与麛犊共偃息于长林丰草间。坐弄流泉,漱齿濯足。既归竹窗下,则山妻稚子,作笋蕨,供麦饭,欣然一饱。弄笔窗间,随大小作数十字,展所藏法帖、墨迹、画卷纵观之。兴到则吟小诗,或草《玉露》一两段,再烹苦茗一杯,出步溪边。邂逅园翁溪友,问桑麻,说粳稻,量晴校雨,探节数时,相与剧谈一饷。归而倚杖柴门之下,则夕阳在山,紫绿万状,变幻顷刻,恍可人目,牛背笛声,两两来归,而月印前溪矣。

Yujia deep mountains, every spring and summer turn, moss surplus steps, falling flowers full path, door no peeling pecking, loose shadow stagger, bird sound up and down. At the beginning of the siesta, gather spring, pick up pine branches, boil bitter tea to sip; read at will \"zhou yi \",\" guo feng \",\" zuo's biography \",\" li sao \", tai shi gongshu, tao du poetry, han su wen several. From rongbu mountain path, caressing pine bamboo, and fangjian calves in the long forest between the grass. Sit in the fountain and wash your teeth. Go to the bamboo window, then the young children, bamboo shoots fern, for the wheat rice, happy a full. Drawn between the window, with the size of dozens of words, the exhibition hide the Dharma post, ink, scroll throughout it. Xing to sing a small poem, or grass \"jade dew\" one or two, and then a cup of bitter tea, out of the stream. Meets the garden Weng Xi friend, asks the mulberry horse, says the japonica rice, measures the fine school rain, explores the number of days, the phase and the drama talks about a pay. Return and rely on the stick under the door of wood, the setting sun in the mountains, purple green ten thousand shapes, changes in the moment, as if eye-catching, ox-back flute sound, two to return, and the moon before the stream.

  现代作家郁达夫在其《清新的小品文字》一文中引用了以上这段文字之后评论道:“看了这一段小品,觉得气味也同袁中郎、张陶庵等的东西差不多。大约描写田园野景,和闲适的自然生活以及纯粹的情感之类,当以这一种文体为最美而最合。”(《闲书》)事实上,我们在晚明小品中所看到的生活情趣与艺术技巧,大多已经充分地表现在宋人小品之中了。所以我们可以说在艺术地感受和表现自然与生活方面,宋人小品也是晚明小品的前驱。

The modern writer Yu Dafu, after quoting the above passage in his essay \"The Fresh Essays \", commented:\" After reading this passage, I feel the smell is similar to that of Yuan Zhonglang, Zhang Taoan and so on. The description of the idyllic landscape, and the natural life of leisure and pure emotion, should be the most beautiful and the most beautiful in this style. As a matter of fact, most of the life tastes and artistic skills we saw in the late Ming Dynasty essays have been fully represented in the Song Dynasty essays. So we can say that in the art of feeling and performance of nature and life, Song people's sketch is also the precursor of the late Ming sketch.

  题跋作为一种独立的文体,始于唐宋。明人吴讷《文章辨体》说:“汉晋诸集,题跋不载;至唐韩、柳,始有读某书及读某文题其后之名。迨宋欧、曾而后,始有跋语,然其辞意亦无大相远也,故《文鉴》《文类》总编之曰题跋而已。”从小品艺术的角度看,宋人的题跋对晚明小品文的影响也是十分巨大的。晚明人喜欢苏、黄,主要喜欢其题跋一类的小品。钟惺《摘黄山谷题跋语》文中认为,题跋之文,可以见出古人的精神本领,“其一语可以为一篇,其一篇可以为一部。山谷此种最可诵法。”而从黄庭坚的题跋中,可“知题跋非文章家小道也。其胸中全副本领,全副精神,借一人、一事、一物发之。落笔极深,极厚、极广,而于所题之一人、一事、一物,其意义未尝不合,所以为妙”。陈继儒也说:“苏黄之妙,最妙于题跋,其次尺牍,其次词。”(《苏黄题跋小序》)其钟情于宋人题跋,于此可见一斑。明人毛晋所辑的《津逮秘书》,以宋人的题跋为一集,并在《东坡题跋》的附识中称苏东坡、黄庭坚为“元佑大家”,又说:“凡人物书画,一经二老题跋,非雷非霆,而千载震惊,似乎莫可伯仲。”题跋之所以受到重视,主要是其形态短小灵活,不拘格套,符合晚明人的兴趣,这也是晚明出现大量题跋作品的一种原因。

As an independent style, postscript began in Tang and Song dynasties. Ming people Wu Na \"article discrimination\" said:\" Han and Jin collection, the postscript does not contain; to Tang Han, Liu, began to read a book and read a topic after the name. Song ou, after the beginning of the postscript, but its speech meaning is not very far away, so \"Wen Jian \", the editor-in-chief of the title and postscript. From the point of view of sketch art, the influence of Song people's postscript on the essays of the late Ming Dynasty is also very great. Late Ming people like Su, Huang, mainly like its postscript a kind of sketch. Zhong Xing \"picking Huangshan Valley inscriptions\" in the text, can be seen in the postscript ancient spiritual skills,\" its language can be one, its one can be one. The valley is the most recitable. And from Huang Tingjian's postscript, can \"know the postscript is not the article home path also. The whole skill in his chest, the whole spirit, through one person, one thing, one thing. Write very deep, very thick, very wide, and in the subject of one person, a matter, a thing, its meaning is not incompatible, so it is wonderful. Chen Jiru also said:\" Su Huang's wonderful, the best in the postscript, followed by bamboo slips, secondary words.\" (\" Su Huang inscription and postscript small preface \") its love in the Song people inscription and postscript, in this visible spot. \"The Secretary of Tianjin\" compiled by Ming people Mao Jin, with the Song people's postscript as an episode, and in the \"Dongpo postscript\" of the attached knowledge called Su Dongpo, Huang Tingjian as \"Yuanyou everyone,\" said:\" where the calligraphy and painting, once the two old postscript, not Lei Fei Tingting, and thousands of shock, seems to be Mo Kebo Zhong. The reason why the postscript is paid attention to is that its form is short and flexible, and it accords with the interest of the late Ming people, which is also a reason why a large number of postscript works appear in the late Ming Dynasty.

  我有一种看法,以为明代文学受唐宋影响极大,但在不同文体之中,影响又颇有不同。明代的诗歌受唐诗影响最大,而明代的散文似得益于宋文者最多,小品文也是其中的例子。

I have a view that the Ming Dynasty literature is greatly influenced by the Tang and Song dynasties, but in different styles, the influence is quite different. The poems of the Ming Dynasty were most influenced by Tang poetry, and the prose of the Ming Dynasty seemed to benefit from the most writers of the Song Dynasty.


相关热词搜索:

上一篇:04届超女冠军安又琪商演捞金脸颊变圆认不出
下一篇:這節是體育課,我先走了不耽誤你們上課

分享到: